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Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment Historical and contemporary livestock production ' the most widespread and longrunning commercial use of public lands ' can alter vegetation soils hydrology and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources Excess abundance of native ungulates eg deer or elk and feral horses and burros add to these impacts Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the longterm supply of ecosystem services on public lands Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and longterm stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change Where livestock use continues or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur management should carefully document the ecological social and economic consequences both costs and benefits to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities soils and water resources Reestablishing apex predators in large contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates

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